Breast cancer: type, cause, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

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What is Breast Cancer: Breast cancer is abnormal growth in the tissue of the breast.

Type: There are two main types of breast cancer:-

Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes(ducts) that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancer are this type

Lobular carcinoma starts in the parts of the breast, called lobules, which produce milk.

Risk factors:

  • Age and gender
  • Family history of breast cancer
  • Genetic abnormality
  • Alcohol
  • Hormones replacement therapy(HRT)
  • Obesity
  • Radiation
  • Childbirth-Women who have never had children or who had them only age 30 have an increased risk of breast cancer. Being pregnant more than once or becoming pregnant at early age reduces your risk of breast cancer.

Symptoms:

  • Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges
  • Changes in the size,shape,or feel of the breast or nipple-redness,dimpling or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange
  • Fluid coming from the nipple-may be bloody,clear to yellow,green,and look-like pus
  • Breast pain or discomfort
  • Skin ulcers
  • Swelling of in the armpit(next to the breast with cancer)
  • Weight loss

Diagnosis: 

It is delayed during pregnancy due to mammary growth 

  • Breast MRI
  • Mammogram
  • Breast ultrasound to show whether the lump is solid or fluid-filled
  • Breast biopsy
  • CT scan to check if the cancer has spread
  • Mammography to screen for breast cancer or help identify the breast lump
  • PET scan to check if the cancer has spread

Treatments:

In pregnancy:

  • Termination of pregnancy is not necessary.
  • surgical treatment of cancer is early.
  • Radiation therapy is withheld.

In non-pregnancy:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy

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