DEPRESSION: CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENTS

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WHAT IS DEPRESSION?
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being. A depressed mood is a normal temporary reaction to life events such as loss of a loved one.it is also a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia.

CAUSE:
Abuse: physical, sexual, or emotional abuse can cause depression later in life.
Certain medications: some drugs used to treat high blood pressure, such as beta-blockers or reserpine.
Conflict: personal conflicts with family members or friends.
Death or a loss: Sadness or grief from the death or loss of a loved one
Genetics: A family history of depression may increase the risk.
Major events: good events such as starting a new job, graduating, or getting married can lead to depression. So can moving, losing a job or income, getting divorced, or retiring.
Other  problems: Problems such as social isolation due to other mental illnesses or being cast out of a family or social group can lead to depression.
Serious illnesses: Sometimes depression co-exists with a major illness .
Substance abuse: Nearly 30% of people with substance abuse problems also have major or clinical depression.

SYMPTOMS:

  • Difficulty concentrating, thinking or making decisions
  • Feeling sad or a depressed mood
  • Loss of interest
  • pleasure in activities once enjoyed
  • weight loss or gain
  • Sleeping pattern disturb
  • Loss of energy
  • Increase in physical activity (e.g., hand-wringing or pacing) or slowed movements and speech (actions observable by others)
  • Feeling worthless or guilty
  • social withdrawal
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Irritability

TREATMENT:

  • Therapies
    1.Cognitive behavioral therapy
    A talk therapy focused on modifying negative thoughts, behaviours and emotional responses associated with psychological distress.
    2.Behaviour therapy
    A therapy focused on modifying harmful behaviours associated with psychological distress.
    3.Psychotherapy
    Treatment of mental or behavioural disorders through talk therapy.
  • Medications
    1.Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)
    Eases symptoms of depressed mood and anxiety.
    2.Antidepressant
    Prevents or relieves depression and elevates mood.
    3.Anxiolytic
    Relieves anxiety and tension. May promote sleep.
  • Medical procedure
    1.Electroconvulsive therapy
    Treating mental illness by sending electric currents through the brain to trigger a seizure. Also known as shock treatment.